In recent Linux releases, it’s available a tiny module called zram, that permits us to create RAM based block devices (named /dev/zramX), which will be kept in memory as compressed data. These ram-based block devices allow very fast I/O, and compression provides a reasonable amounts of memory saving.
We can use it as a drop-in replacement for the well-known tmpfs (used for speeding up compilation tasks or for /tmp), or better as a primary swap device, that will lead to virtually increase memory capacity, at the expense of a slightly increased CPU usage to compress/decompress the swapped data.
Nowadays RAM is very cheap, so why bother with compression? Because there are some situations where you can’t upgrade memory (netbooks) or you want to over-commit real resources (virtualization hosts).
For Ubuntu Precise and later:
Starting with Ubuntu Precise, there is an official upstart script for Ubuntu by Adam Conrad to configure zram in the main repository:
sudo apt-get install zram-config
For other distributions or older Ubuntu:
Googlin’ around to find a nice way to configure zram devices as swap, I found a very nice upstart script that will create a bunch of ramz devices depending on the number of CPU cores available, with a total size of the available memory: https://raw.github.com/gionn/etc/master/init.d/zram
Copy the script to the init.d folder, mark it as executable and enable autostart on boot:
sudo wget https://raw.github.com/gionn/etc/master/init.d/zram -O /etc/init.d/zram
sudo chmod +x /etc/init.d/zram
sudo update-rc.d zram defaults
Try it manually executing it for the first time with:
Depending on the kernel version you are running, you may need to adjust the module parameter name to num_devices on line 26 to:
modprobe zram num_devices=$num_cpus
or keep as is for newer kernels:
modprobe zram zram_num_devices=$num_cpus
Checking if it’s working
If everything went smooth, you will find a few notices on
zram: module is from the staging directory, the quality is unknown, you have been warned.
zram: Creating 4 devices ...
Adding 1497864k swap on /dev/zram0. Priority:100 extents:1 across:1497864k SS
Adding 1497864k swap on /dev/zram1. Priority:100 extents:1 across:1497864k SS
Adding 1497864k swap on /dev/zram2. Priority:100 extents:1 across:1497864k SS
Adding 1497864k swap on /dev/zram3. Priority:100 extents:1 across:1497864k SS
meaning that the zram device have been created and enabled as swap devices with highest priority.
You can discover the increased swap space available with
total used free shared buffers cached
Mem: 5851 5696 154 0 85 4310
-/+ buffers/cache: 1300 4550
Swap: 5851 0 5850
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